Work or Study
Meeting new people
Newspapers & magazines
Describe a person who is a good leader
Describe an old person you know and respect
Describe a friend who you are happy to know
Describe a person in the news who you want to meet.
Describe a person who taught you something
Describe a family member you spend most time with.
Describe a job that you would not like to do in the future
Describe a sport that you would like to try for the first time
Describe a film that made you think a lot
Describe an article on health you read on magazine or the Internet
Describe a piece of important news you got through a text message
Describe a film you would like to share with your friends
Describe a new skill you learned that you think is important
Describe a goal you set that you tried your best to achieve
Describe a successful small company
Describe an application (program) you usually use on your phone
Describe a large company that you are interested in
Describe something you bought that was difficult to use at first
Describe a change that can improve your local area
Describe a uniform (in school or company) you wear
Describe a souvenir you bought
Describe someone or something that made a lot of noise
Describe an occasion you wore the best clothes
Describe a dinner that you really enjoyed
Describe a time you got lost in a place you did not know
Describe a time you are surprised to meet a friend
Describe a time when you were excited
Describe an occasion when the weather prevented your activity
Describe a (long) car journey you went on
Describe an experience when you enjoyed an indoor game in your childhood
Describe a trip that has been delayed for a long while.
Describe an interesting animal you saw
Describe a time when you were not allowed to use your mobile phone.
Describe an art exhibition you recently saw
Describe a time when someone apologized to you
Describe a time when you helped someone
Describe the biggest challenge you have faced
Describe a volunteering experience you have had
Describe a risk you have taken which had a positive result
Describe a time when you learned from a mistake you made
Describe a time when you missed an appointment
Describe a time when a family member asked you for help
Describe an occasion when you wasted your time
Describe a team where you were a member
Describe a performance you watched recently
Describe a place where you are able to relax
Describe a foreign country (culture) you want to know more about
Describe a crowded place you have been to.
Describe a place you visited that has been affected by pollution
Describe a new public place you would like to visit
Describe a city or town you enjoyed visiting and would like to visit again
Describe an ideal house or apartment you want to live in.
S1 登报卖二手电脑桌/ S2 酒店开业活动/ S3 调查学生应用数学解决问题的能力/ S4 保护两栖动物
S1填空+单选/ S2单选+地图配对/ S3 单选+表格填空+句子填空/ S4 填空
Section 1出现了单选+填空题的组合方式，和C11-3-1比较类似，填空题出现的词汇bargain，printer以及地址和电话号码的听写，内容和常见的租房，活动类话题无异，其中单选题中，对于家具问题的考核和剑桥14-1-1的内容类似。整篇section1都涉及到了金钱，时间，物品，日期的考核。建议学生可以参照14-1-1进行对比。 Section2的单选无论是题干还是选项都是言简意赅，出现了比较浅显的同义替换，答案的识别比较容易。考核了形容词字词之间的同义替换，如quiet-peaceful，另外还有价格，数字的辨音和基本听写考核，词组出现了connecting room—executive room等。这次出现的地图题，位置明晰，并未出现信息密集，形状奇怪的布局，注意已知参照物中，lake是以常见的circle形状出现的，并且已经标注好起始点。学生审题的时候应该尤其注意。Section3中，单选题部分题需要学生句子理解。难度也不是很大。后面的表格填空题以及句子填空题出现的答案词也在剑桥现有真题中出现过多次，属于高频场景单词，对于学生定位以及识别题干同义替换考点，找准定位信息能力会注重一些。Section4考的内容和8月6号考试内容相近，也是动物环保话题。从整篇题干看来，小标题很清晰，学生需要重视标题的定位和信息提示作用，答案词都是高频词汇，如conservation，mountain，agriculture，habitat等。相关类似真题可以参考C11-4-1，C12-3-4，C13-3-4.帮助熟悉此类话题。
1. 场景方面：场景方面依然是主流场景（咨询、旅游生活场景、课程讨论、学科探讨和讲座），在接下来的考试中，考生还应将重点放在S1咨询，租房，求职 ，S2旅游，活动及公共场所设施介绍，S3课程讨论及论文写作，S4各类学科探讨和讲座。
大作文：Human activities have negative effects on plant and animal species. Some people think it is too late to do anything about this problem. Others believe effective measures can be taken to improve this situation. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
主体段1：首先，让步题干观点角度，人类生活一直在破坏环境，Human civilization has largely destroyed the habitats of many plants and animals so that some species have disappeared entirely from the earth. 生态环境问题当前确实非常严峻As the urbanization process goes on endlessly throughout the world, plants and animals can find less and less space to dwell in. 但还是有机会及时保护环境， it’s never too late to start. Though we can not stop the city from spreading altogether, we can create a favorable environment for plants and animals to thrive on. 并且，保护生态环境就是保护人类自身的生存。
主体段2： 政府层面有不可推卸的责任要鼓励公众做好环保。政府资金充裕，可以建立一些野生动物保护区build up more natural reserves for animals, imitating the natural habitats of plants and animals and do not allow people to intrude in. 个人层面，应当更多学习了解物种多样性对于人类生活的重要性，People should be educated to understand that human beings themselves would suffer if the entire ecological system were destroyed.
Passage 1的题型组合为：单选+填空+段落细节配对，难度中等。Passage 2 和3两篇文章在理解上难度较大
Keep a watchful eye on the bridges
A. Most road and rail bridges are only inspected visually, if at all. Every few months, engineers have to clamber over the structure in an attempt to find problems before the bridge shows obvious signs of damage. Technologies developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Texas A&M University may replace these surveys with microwave sensors that constantly monitor the condition of bridges.
B. ” The device uses microwaves to measure the distance between the sensor and the bridge, much like radar does,” says Albert Migliori, a Los Alamos physicist “Any load on the bridge – such as traffic – induces displacements, which change that distance as the bridge moves up and down.” By monitoring these movements over several minutes, the researchers can find out how the bridge resonates. Changes in its behavior can give an early warning of damage.
C. The Interstate 40 bridge over the Rio Grande river in Albuquerque provided the researchers with a rare opportunity to text their ideas. Chuck Farrar, an engineer at Los Alamos, explains: “The New Mexico authorities decided to raze this bridge and replace it. We were able to mount instruments on it, test it under various load conditions and even inflict damage just before it was demolished.” In the 1960s and 1970s, 2500 similar bridges were built in the US. They have two steel girders supporting the load in each section. Highway experts know that this design is “fracture critical” because a failure in either girder would cause the bridge to fail.
D. After setting up the microwave dish on the ground below the bridge, the Los Alamos team installed conventional accelerometers at several points along the span to measure its motion. They then tested the bridge while traffic roared across it and while subjecting it to pounding from a “shaker”, which delivered precise punches to a specific point on the road.
E. ―We then created damage that we hoped would simulate fatigue cracks that can occur in steel girders,‖ says Farrar. They first cut a slot about 60 centimeters long in the middle of one girder. They then extended the cut until it reached the bottom of the girder and finally they cut across the flange – the bottom of the girder‘s “I” shape.
F. The initial, crude analysis of the bridge‘s behavior, based on the frequency at which the bridge resonates, did not indicate that anything was wrong until the flange was damaged. But later the data were reanalyzed with algorithms that took into account changes in the mode shapes of the structure – shapes that the structure takes on when excited at a particular frequency. These more sophisticated algorithms, which were developed by Norris Stubbs at Texas A&M University, successfully identified and located the damage caused by the initial cut.
G. “When any structure vibrates, the energy is distributed throughout with some points not moving, while others vibrate strongly at various frequencies,” says Stubbs. “My algorithms use pattern recognition to detect changes in the distribution of this energy.” NASA already uses Stubbs‘ method to check the behavior of the body flap that slows space shuttles down after they land.
H. A commercial system based on the Los Alamos hardware is now available, complete with the Stubbs algorithms, from the Quatro Corporation in Albuquerque for about $100,000. Tim Darling, another Los Alamos physicist working on the microwave interferometer with Migliori, says that as the electronics become cheaper, a microwave inspection system will eventually be applied to most large bridges in the US. “In a decade I would like to see a battery or solar-powered package mounted under each bridge, scanning it every day to detect changes,” he says.
Questions 1 – 4
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1 How did the traditional way to prevent damage of the bridges before the invention of new monitoring system.
A Bridges has to be tested in every movement on two points.
B Bridges has to be closely monitored by microwave devices.
C Bridges has already been monitored by sensors.
D Bridges has to be frequently inspected by professional workers with naked eyes.
2 How does the new microwave monitors find out the problems of bridges.
A by changeling the distance between the positions of devices
B by controlling the traffic flow on the bridges
C by monitoring the distance caused by traffic between two points
D by displacement of the several critical parts in the bridges
3 Why did the expert believe there is a problem for the design called “fracture critical“
A Engineers failed to apply the newly developed construction materials.
B There was not enough finance to repair the bridges.
C The supporting parts of the bridges may crack and cause the bridge to fail.
D There was bigger traffic load conditions than the designers had anticipated.
4 Defect was not recognized by a basic method in the beginning.
A until the mid of faces of bridges has fractures.
B until the damage appears along and down to the flanges.
C until the points on the road have been punched.
D until the frequency of resonates appears disordered.
Questions 5 – 8
Filling the blanks in the diagram labels.
Write the correct answer in boxes 5 – 8 on your answer sheet.
Questions 9 – 13
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs, A – H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A – H, in boxes 9 – 13 on your answer sheet.
9 how is the pressure that they have many a great chance to test bridges
10 a ten-year positive change for microwave device
11 the chance they get a honorable contract
12 explanation of the mechanism for the new microwave monitoring to work
13 how is the damage deliberately created by the researchers
7 steel girders
1. 本场考试整体偏难，主要是Passage 2和3两篇文章在理解上难度较大，导致很多考生做到最后一篇文章时就只剩下了10分钟左右，来不及做完。Passage 1重复往年旧题，题型组合上为单选+填空+段落细节配对，难度比passage 1常规的填空+判断要大一些。考生备考时，建议尽可能找准每一道题的考点，有目的的回原文找取有效信息，不需要逐字逐句精准理解，并且在阅读过程中要练习对于逻辑关系的分析，不能单纯靠同义转换。重点训练题型为判断/选择/段落细节配对，其他一些题型务必要理清题型特点，考虑全面做题注意事项